Exit, Voice, and Loyalty with Multiple Exit Strategies: Evidence from the Federal Workforce

Now available at JPART Advance Access, with Soo-Young Lee of Seoul National University:

We assess the turnover intentions of federal employees using Hirschman’s theory of exit, voice and loyalty. Specifically, we follow other studies that have tested the effects of loyalty and voice on the likelihood a person states their intention to leave. However, using large-scale survey evidence from the federal workforce, we are able to assess the impact of loyalty, voice, and other factors (including assessments of pay) on the likelihood that a respondent will retire, leave for another federal agency, or leave for another sector. Our statistical analysis provides evidence that perceptions about voice and loyalty limit exit. Yet, the effects of voice, loyalty and pay vary with exit option.